922: Clinical Guideline Update 2008: Pain Management

Author / Instructor: Michael P. Cronin
Profession: Certified Nurse Midwives (CNM), Certified Nursing Assistants (CNA), Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNA), Nurse Practitioners (NP), Nurses (RN)
Jurisdiction: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands (U.S.), Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
CEU Hours: 3
Course Method: Online
Amount: $24
Active: Yes


Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  1. Define what is meant by “hand therapy”
  2. Identify the Scope of Practice and Domains of Hand Therapy
  3. Discuss the scientific basis of hand therapy
  4. Define and explain what is meant by rheumatoid arthritis
  5. Describe the scientific studies of the impact hand therapy had on patients in this course

(70 pages)To study the effects of work related and individual factors affecting radiating neck pain.

METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out with repeated measurements. A total of 5180 Finnish forest industry workers replied to a questionnaire survey in 1992 (response rate 75%). Response rates to follow up questionnaires in 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 83%, 77%, and 90%, respectively. The outcome variable was the number of days with radiating neck pain during the preceding 12 months with three levels (<8, 8-30, >30 days). The generalised estimating equations method was used to fit a marginal model and a transition model was used in a predictive analysis.

RESULTS: Items showing associations with radiating neck pain in both analyses were sex, age, body mass index, smoking, duration of work with a hand above shoulder level, mental stress, and other musculoskeletal pains. In the transition model, radiating neck pain in a previous questionnaire was included in the model. Although it was a strong predictor, the variables already mentioned retained their significance.

CONCLUSION: Programmes targeted to reduce physical load at work, mental stress, being overweight, and smoking could potentially prevent radiating neck pain.

(43 pages)